ruling out ovarian cancer
ruling out ovarian cancer

Ovarian Cancer you should Never Ignore

Ovarian cancer occurs when ovary cells grow and divide uncontrollably. Ovarian tumours can be of many types. According to the classification accepted by the World Health Organization, two categories of tumours are distinguished: the primitives and the secondary ones, which differs from the former because they reach the ovary after having appeared in other parts of the body.

The ovaries are two small almond-shaped organs that are part of the female internal genital apparatus. In addition to the reproductive function (they are the female gonads ), they play an endocrine function, secreting estrogen and progesterone.

From a histological point of view, ovarian tumours are subdivided into epithelial, stromal and germinal tumours. Epithelial tumours derive from a malfunction of the Mullerian epithelium (tissue that covers the ovary), can present in benign or malignant form and represent fifty per cent of the cancers affecting the ovary. They have a higher incidence in women between the ages of 55 and 65.

Stromal tumours

Stromal tumors originate in another tissue of the ovary structure. They are rarer cancers and account for four per cent of malignant tumours that can affect the ovary. Germinal tumours derived from cells that give rise to eggs. They are also rarer, accounting for five per cent of malignant ovarian tumours.


This type of tumour occurs mainly at a young age, ovarian cancer age 30. An example is represented by the dysgerminoma that affects girls or adolescents in almost all cases.


For ovarian cancer, there is no clear and precise list of symptoms to pay attention to, but we’ll give you some important tips on how and what the early symptoms will look like, just keep reading it thoroughly.

Is Ovarian Cancer Fatal

Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually diagnosed in the later stages. In the early stages, symptoms are usually absent, and in the later stages, they are non-specific. Diagnostic methods typically include ultrasonography, CT or MRI and the determination of tumour markers (e.g., CA 125 cancer antigen) as stated by ovarian cancer alliance of Ohio.


The diagnosis is established on the basis of histological examination. The stage of the disease is determined during surgery. Treatment includes hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, excision of as much of the affected tissue as possible (cytoreduction), and, until the cancer is localized, chemotherapy.


In the United States, the most common ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological cancer (affecting about 1/70 women). In women, it is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and it is estimated that in the United States in 2017 it will result in 22,440 new cases and 14,080 deaths. In developed countries, incidence rates are higher.






The pathological and excessive accumulation of fluids in the abdominal cavity is called ascites. This symptom may be a sign of many types of cancer, but most often it accompanies ovarian cancer. The development of ascites is favoured by prolonged disorders in the natural circulation of the fluid in the abdominal cavity.


There is a specific symptom indicating that ruling out ovarian cancer is progressing. In this case, there is an accumulation of fluid containing tumour cells in the abdominal cavity. This symptom is called ascites. Causes an injury to the lymph nodes, ruptures of the oval capsule. As a result, inflammation, abscesses, organ necrosis, and possible death are observed. As a rule, ascites occurs in the 3-4 phase of this pathology.

ruling out ovarian cancer
ruling out ovarian cancer


Ascites is a rather dangerous condition that can cause inflammation, abscesses, and necrosis. In the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, ascites is a fairly expected symptom, to eliminate which therapeutic methods are used.




In ovarian cancer, fluid formation is most often caused by a lesion of the lymphatic vessels. The release of fluid into the abdominal cavity can also be caused by an ovarian rupture.


The presence of ascites indicates the development of advanced tumours (stages 3 and 4).


When the fluid volume is less than 200 ml, it is impossible to detect ascites with the help of an external examination, larger quantities cause an increase in abdominal volume and the presence of parts of the peritoneal protruding asymmetrically.


The signs of ascites also include:

  • Swelling of the lower abdomen, external genital organs, and legs
  • Painful sensations that are very intense and make patients assume the position of the embryo (in this position the severity of the symptoms decreases)
  • Heaviness in the abdomen
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty tilting the body
  • Signs of intoxication
  • Frequent urination (oliguria)
  • Intestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, flatulence)


In the initial phase, ascites cannot cause any painful symptoms. The presence of excess liquids can be detected by chance – with ultrasound or CT. Often, ascites is the first clear sign of cancer and its early diagnosis can help identify ovarian cancer and start therapy.


Ascites in the advanced stage causes shortness of breath, a feeling of fullness with a small amount of food and can lead to the development of an umbilical hernia. Visually, ascites is evident with large volumes of liquids. In obese patients, an increase in the abdomen can be traced by measuring its volume. In thin women, the changes are obvious and without measurements; the characteristic feature is the protrusion of the navel.


On examination, while lying on his back, there is a symptom called “belly of the frog” – the liquid moves towards the lateral sections of the abdominal cavity, and in front of the belly appears flat. Long-term ascites can cause hydrothorax – fluid penetration into the pleural cavity.


The accumulation in the abdominal cavity of over 10 litres of liquid causes the squeezing of all the internal organs and the movement of the diaphragm in the thoracic cavity, which reduces the amplitude of respiratory movements and causes oxygen deficiency and severe malfunctioning of the heart.


Ascites can cause a pathological flow of the fluid through the lymphatic system – in this case, the tumour cells penetrate through the lymph into healthy tissues and organs and cause a wide malignant contamination of the whole organism. Especially rapidly with the development of extensive ascites, cancer cells penetrate the pancreas, stomach, and liver.



To remove excess fluid and stop the development of ascites, a cycle of diuretic drugs is conducted and the salt-water ratio is restored. With the inefficiency of these methods, the abdominal cavity is punctured and the fluid is completely pumped.


When ascites require a certain diet, which includes broth with added cinnamon, ginger, fennel, parsley and marjoram (these herbs help fight ascites). It is necessary to eat in small portions.


To improve the effectiveness of the treatment and that the patient could live longer with 3 tablespoons ovarian oncology. with ascites – intraperitoneal chemotherapy is performed.



More often in the initial phase, the signs of the oncological process can be confused with other diseases and the diagnosis can be made incorrectly. After a while, you can accurately determine the diagnosis through these Guidelines for ovarian cancer.


There is a constant presence of symptoms or some of them are intensified:

  • Pain in the pelvic region
  • A feeling of heaviness and overeating
  • Abdominal distension (flatulence)
  • Frequent urination
  • Drastic weight loss or weight gain
  • Constant feeling of tiredness
  • Frequent pain in the lower abdomen and lower back
  • Dysfunctional disorders in the digestive tract
  • Pain sensations during sexual intercourse
  • Menstrual disorders
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Disturbed stools (diarrhoea/constipation)


When cancer is running, symptoms appear that shows symptoms:

  • Anaemia
  • Cachexia (exhaustion of the body)
  • Acute pelvic pain
  • Ascites
  • Swelling of the legs resulting in thrombosis (due to compression of the pelvic veins)
  • Signs of heart failure and respiratory systems


A correct diagnosis of ovarian cancer can be completed after performing a pelvic ultrasound and checking tumour markers ( CA125, CA19.9, HE4, CE15.3, and CEA ), by taking a prescribed blood sample in case the ultrasound picture is suspect.



The main concern is to understand if we are facing a circumscribed neoplasm or if the disease has already taken hold spreading to the pelvic area and beyond. For this reason, gastroscopy and colonoscopy are performed in this phase to exclude a primitiveness from the gastrointestinal system.


Ovarian cancer can be diagnosed in different stages:

  • Stage I (limited to the ovaries)
  • Stage II (on one or both ovaries and also extended to the pelvic organs)
  • Stage III (on one or both ovaries, extended to the pelvic organs and / or with metastasis to the lymph nodes of the same area)
  • Stage IV (with the presence of metastases also at a distance from the zone of the ovaries, usually to the liver and the lungs


A good or bad prognosis depends on the stage of the tumour at the time of diagnosis which must be as timely as possible.




Tumours are multifactorial diseases and, even in the case of the ovary, the causes can be genetic or linked to lifestyle. The causes that determine the uncontrolled division and multiplication of cells in the ovary are not yet known.


What is known is that a number of factors increase the risk of developing this form of ovarian cancer. A first risk factor is represented by age, as the peak incidence of the disease is recorded between 50 and 60 years, therefore in women of pre or postmenopausal age.


However, some types of ovarian cancer can occur in younger women. The main risk factor for ovarian cancer is 15-25 per cent. Women with a mother (or sister or daughter) suffering from a tumour of the ovary, breast or uterus are more likely to contract the tumor. Changes in the hereditary genes Brca 1 and Brca 2 can lead to a more or less important predisposition to the development of ovarian cancer.


The ovarian cancer risk rate is 39-46 per cent if a Brca 1 gene mutation is present and 10-27 per cent if a Brca 2 gene mutation is present.


Being carriers of a mutation of such genes lead to a greater probability, but not the certainty, of getting sick. In this case, however, it is important to follow a program of regular and accurate checks as well as it is important to inform adult members of the family that they could be, in turn, carriers of the mutation.


To ascertain the existence of such alterations, Brca 1 and Brca 2 genetic test is carried out, a laboratory test that allows the identification of their existence and, in the positive case, the identification of possible prevention options. Since there are no effective preventive strategies for ovarian cancer, bilateral prophylactic annessiectomia (removal of tubes and ovaries) is able to prevent almost all ovarian tumours on a genetic-inherited basis.


Bilateral oophorectomy  (surgery to surgical removal of the ovaries) is now recommended in women with the gene mutation BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 which have already been pregnant or have passed the childbearing age. The laboratory test is extremely useful even when performed on patients already suffering from ovarian cancer because it allows to model the pharmacological therapy on this specific situation and to significantly improve the outcome.


In addition to familiarity and genetic risk, we must consider the endocrine system that deals with the production and distribution of hormones in the body. In general, repeated ovulations seem to be associated with a greater risk of contracting the disease, while pregnancy seems to play an important role as a protective factor of ovarian cancer due to the reduction in the number of ovulations.


The same applies to prolonged breastfeeding which, according to studies, seems to have a positive effect on protecting against the disease. Some studies have shown a higher incidence of ovarian cancer in women subjected to early menstruation or late menopause. There is also a correlation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer.


In contrast, prolonged use of the contraceptive pill is associated with a lower risk of contracting the disease. Obesity, smoking, lack of exercise are further factors that increase the risk of developing this neoplasm.




The choice of therapy depends on the location and stage of the tumour, the age and general condition of the patient and is, however, the result of a multidisciplinary evaluation.


  • Surgery

Surgery is a central step in the treatment of ovarian cancer. It is used to diagnose the disease and to stage ovarian cancer, as well as to remove it as radically as possible. In patients with advanced disease, surgery, in addition to assessing the extent of the disease, is aimed at removing the entire visible tumour (cytoreductive surgery).


If the disease is radically removed the gain in terms of survival for the patient reaches forty months compared to patients in whom the surgery did not completely remove the disease. Even in patients with early-stage disease, surgery plays a key role.


In fact, it allows a correct staging in order to set up adequate postoperative management. Moreover, in expert hands, the surgical approach can be “modulated” according to the spread of the disease, the age of the patient and her reproductive desire


  • Chemotherapy

First and second-line chemotherapy remains, after surgery, the key treatment for the treatment of ovarian cancer and uses a standard pharmacological treatment based on paclitaxel and carboplatin, to date the therapeutic combination of reference.


  • Monoclonal antibodies

In recent years, mostly in association with chemotherapy, new therapies called “molecular targets” have emerged. These are drugs targeting a specific target identified as particularly important in the genesis or progression of a given neoplasm.


As with many forms of cancer, even for ovarian cancer, a very important target in angiogenesis, or the growth of blood vessels created by the tumour to supply itself with the nutrients and oxygen, it needs to grow and spread. Anti-angiogenic therapy attacks the disease by stopping the development process of the blood vessels that the tumour needs to proliferate and spread to other regions of the body. The use of anti-angiogenic treatment in ovarian cancer, therefore, offers an important new opportunity.


The progenitor of this class of drugs is bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds and blocks VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) protein that has a key role in angiogenesis. Bevacizumab was the first biological drug approved in Europe available in the ovarian cancer drug market and is the first angiogenesis inhibitor for the treatment of women with advanced non-pretreated ovarian cancer who are able to delay relapses and prolong survival without disease progression.


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  • (I-A) – The tumour is located in one ovary, without leaving its capsule
  • (I-B) – The neoplasm affects both ovaries without damaging their capsule
  • (I-C) – The tumour is localized in one / two ovaries, damaging their capsule. Ascites develops, in which fluid containing pathological cells accumulates in the peritoneum



Stage 1 is characterized by the presence of the following symptoms:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain in the lumbar region
  • Discomfort during intercourse
  • Poor functioning of the stomach
  • A sharp decrease in body weight
  • Nausea
  • Frequent urination
  • Frequent bloating
  • A feeling of fullness in the stomach
  • With the progression of the disease, vaginal discharge from the vagina that is not associated with menstruation may also appear



At stage I carry out:

  • Analysis of fluid located in the abdominal cavity
  • Gynaecological examination and palpation of internal organs
  • Stage 1 Ovarian Cancer Ultrasound of the pelvic organs
  • Additionally, doctors can prescribe a gastrointestinal examination and mammography



Surgical removal of the tumour is performed, followed by chemotherapy treatment. During the operation, doctors remove one or both ovaries.


Stage 2 – The neoplasm is localized within the ovaries and pelvis.


  • (II-A) – There is an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes
  • (II-B) – Pathology extends to other pelvic organs
  • (II-C) – Cancer affects the uterus and fallopian tubes, as well as other pelvic organs. The ovarian capsule is damaged. Diagnosed with ascites


Stage 2 is characterized by these symptoms:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhoea
  • Bloody discharge during or after intercourse
  • Fever
  • Severe pain in the lumbar region
  • Heavy bleeding during menstruation or bleeding that is not associated with the menstrual cycle
  • Weight loss
  • An increase in the abdomen in size
  • Fatigue



At stage II are performed:

  • Biopsy
  • CT and MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • Sonography



Doctors perform a radical operation, during which the uterus is also removed. After surgery, the patient is prescribed a course of chemotherapy.


Stage 3 – The tumour spreads to one or both ovaries. Oncology also occurs in the organs of the peritoneum, regional lymph nodes.


  • (III-A) – The neoplasm is still in the pelvic area, however, the presence of cancer cells in the abdominal cavity is observed
  • (III-B) – Metastases occur in the abdominal region. Their size is up to 2 cm. The lymph nodes of the groin and peritoneum are not affected by the malignant process
  • (III-C) – Metastases exceeding 2 cm in size occur in the abdominal cavity. The malignant process affects the lymph nodes of the groin and peritoneum



Stage II is characterized by the presence of the following symptoms:

  • Anaemia
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Bloating
  • Dyspepsia
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Flatulence
  • Vomiting
  • A sharp decrease or increase in body weight
  • Nausea
  • Increase in waist in volume
  • Frequent urination



At stage III, the following studies are carried out:

  • Blood test for the presence of tumour markers CA-125
  • Ultrasound



Total surgical removal of tissues affected by the malignant process is performed. During surgery, internal organs affected by cancer can be removed. After surgery, chemotherapy is also prescribed.


Stage 4 – Distant metastatic foci in the internal organs and lymph nodes are observed.



Stage 4 is characterized by the presence of the following symptoms:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Back pain
  • Delayed menstruation
  • Laboured breathing
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Swelling of the hands and feet
  • Poor appetite
  • Weight loss
  • The Rapid increase in the abdomen


Also, this stage is characterized by the presence of fluid in the abdomen (ascites). The main cause of this condition is metastatic processes in the lymph nodes.



At Stage 4 Performed:

  • Internal urography
  • CT scan
  • Puncture of the abdominal cavity
  • Radioisotope scanning
  • Radiography of the lungs
  • Ultrasound of the liver and organs located in the pelvis
  • Cytological examination of material taken from the vagina
  • Endoscopic and laparoscopic examinations



Surgical treatment is ineffective in the presence of metastases in the lymph nodes. However, surgical treatment is indicated to improve the general condition of the patient. Chemotherapy is also recommended at this stage.


It is this method of treatment that is most effective in the presence of metastatic processes. Also at this stage, the patient has prescribed palliative treatment, which is designed to minimize unpleasant symptoms.


Irradiation and radiotherapy are not prescribed as an independent treatment for ovarian cancer since they do not give special results.




You already know that the pill is great for regulating your cycle and keeping babies at bay, but it also has many other great health benefits. According to a recent analysis in the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology, women who use birth control pills have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer – and the longer you take it, the lower the risk.


Researchers reviewed 24 studies in recent years. They found that women who had ever used oral contraceptives — any type — had a 27 per cent lower risk of diagnosing ovarian cancer than women who never took the birth control pill. And women who have been on the pill for 10 years or more have seen a reduction in risk of more than 50 per cent!


One theory is that stopping ovulation has a protective effect on the ovaries, although other theories mention a possible hormonal effect on the fallopian tubes, where many aggressive forms of ovarian cancer begin, says Researchers. Regardless of the mechanism, this is a pretty big side effect if you are already planning on being on the pill.


Nevertheless, experts warn that you should not go to birth control simply to reduce the risk since the average woman’s chances of diagnosing ovarian cancer are only 1.7 per cent. However, if you have a family history or a known genetic mutation that puts you at an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer, and you are already planning for the birth control pills, it might be worth talking to your doctor about it before starting.



Ovarian cancer is a fairly common disease and affects at least 4 out of 10 women worldwide every year. Despite the fact that ovarian cancer is a rather harmful disease, this should not stop you from leading a normal life, and with proper treatment, you can even have children.


There are a number of professional specialists in ovarian cancer, as well as organizations that provide professional advice and treatment both in your country and worldwide where possible. The Internet is one of the most reliable means by which you can find people or organizations who are professionally versed in all kinds of cancer-related problems.


Many times the question arises that Can a woman with ovarian cancer gets pregnant, and the answer is yes, there are a number of people who have gone from harming and decided to lead an as normal life as possible when it comes to pregnancy and ovarian cancer.


Although it is customary to try to remove the affected ovaries after pregnancy in order to reduce the effects of cancer. Ovarian cancer during pregnancy is not an isolated matter and can occur in everyone, but the mental power that is necessary to overcome this problem depends on you.


Impact on your child:

With proper care and proper nutrition, you can provide your baby with the best development in ovarian cancer during pregnancy. With proper care, your baby will not suffer from cancer, and you will be able to get a healthy birth before moving on to treating cancer in the most appropriate way.


Ovarian cancer is a fatal problem for your body, but if it occurs during pregnancy, you have the opportunity to cope with both pregnancy and ovarian cancer. It is widely believed that you can become pregnant with ovarian cancer.




Q- Can Ovarian Cancer be Detected by MRI?

A- Yes, Ovarian Cancer, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer can be detected by MRI Diagnostic Process which is PET/CT Scan. The right time for the diagnosis will be suggested by the medical profession after checking the symptoms.


Q- Will an Ultrasound show ovarian cancer?

A- The 2 tests utilized regularly (a total pelvic test) to screen for ovarian malignant growth are transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and the CA-125 blood test. It can help locate a mass (tumour) in the ovary, however, it can’t really tell if a mass is a malignant growth or not.


Q- Can birth control reduce the risk of ovarian cancer?

A- Researchers reviewed many studies in recent years. They found that women who had ever used oral contraceptives — any type — had a 27 per cent lower risk of diagnosing ovarian cancer than women who never took the pill.


Q- If you have ovarian cancer can you still get pregnant?

A- The answer is, Yes. There are a number of women who have gone through positive pregnancy test ovarian cancer and decided to lead as normal life as possible when it comes to pregnancy with ovarian cancer.


Q- Who found ovarian cancer?

A- As indicated by Hamilton,1 the idea that epithelial ovarian tumours emerge from ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells was proposed by Sir Spencer Wells in 1872.


Q- Can ovarian cancer can be cured completely?

A- Many people have a mix of medical procedure and chemotherapy. The point of treatment is to fix the malignant growth if conceivable. In many cases, this is cured completely and in the other ratio of cases, symptoms have been removed through proper medications and treatment.


Q- Can ovarian cancer be cured without surgery?

A- Almost 20 per cent of ladies with ovarian malignant growth don’t experience medical surgery, although it’s being a standard piece of the treatment which is recommended.


Q- How many ovarian cancer deaths recorded per year?

A- Around 21,000 U.S. individuals get diagnosed to have ovarian malignant growth on per year basis, and around 14,000 die because of this cancer. A person’s lifetime danger of creating ovarian malignancy is around 1 of every 78. Their risk of losing a life from ovarian disease is around 1 in 108.


Q- How much bleeding with ovarian cancer?

A- Signs and indications of ovarian malignancy may include general stomach distress including (gas, acid reflux, weight, swelling, spasms) vomiting, loose bowels, blockage. abnormal bleeding disorder from the vagina may happen as a late side effect.


Q- How long is chemotherapy for ovarian cancer?

A- These medications are generally given as a Stage IV (put into a vein) every 3 weeks to about a month. The duration course of chemo for epithelial ovarian malignant growth includes 3 to 6 cycles of treatment.


Q- How much pain does ovarian cancer cause?

A- Ovarian cancer doesn’t bring about any recognizable side effects in the beginning periods as we discussed above also. But, these side effects of ovarian malignant growth can create at any phase of the condition and include: swelling. pelvic or stomach pain or cramping.


Q- Does ovarian cancer cause rapid weight gain?

A- Symptoms of ovarian cancer include swelling in stomach, pain and bloating, all of which individual patients may link this to weight gain.


Q- How does ovarian cancer affect the brain?

A- Ovarian cancer growth is an uncommon reason for cerebrum metastasis with recently reported pervasiveness. Extracranial metastasis was available in 49.8 % of cases including liver (20.7 %), lung (20.4 %), lymph hubs (12.6 %), bones (6.6 %) and pelvic organs (4.3 %).


Q- Why ovarian cancer causes constipation?

A- Sadly, these signs are regularly related to bladder issues. Any adjustment in the bowel motions, or blockage or loose motions of the bowels, could be an indication of ovarian cancer.


Q- Is ovarian cancer is the most deadliest?

A- Real Question is that Can Ovarian Cancer can kill you? The answer is, Epithelial ovarian malignant growth is the deadliest of gynecologic tumours. Around 80% of patients are recorded being dead from ovarian cancer, the deadly disease.


Q- Why ovarian cancer is called the silent killer?

A- Because, as we have mentioned above, in 90% of cases it is impossible to detect this disease in the first two Stages. In most cases, it is detected in the 3rd stage or 4th stage.


Q- Can we cure ovarian cancer naturally?

A- There are no proven or claimed methods available by doctors or researcher claiming to cure this disease naturally.


Q- Does ovarian cancer run in the family?

A- An expected 15 per cent of ovarian malignant growth analyses are influenced by hereditary, or genetic variables went down through family qualities. Ovarian malignant growths are brought about the modifications in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 qualities.


Q- Can you have kids with ovarian cancer?

A- The answer is Yes. You can have them, by proper medications, treatment and overall good diet instructed by your doctor. After delivery, you can start with the treatment of your disease.


Q- What age is common for ovarian cancer?

A- Most common age for ovarian cancer to be detected is 52 to 65 years. It may occur in any age frame but this is the most common age group for this disease.


Q- Pain during sex Ovarian cancer?

A- If sex is hurting, you could have a tumour that is pushing into your vagina and being troubled by sex. Ovarian cancer can likewise cause hormonal changes that lead to vaginal dryness, which can also cause uneasiness during sex.


Q- How do guys get ovarian cancer?

A- Men can also convey BRCA mutations, so your chances of high risks for ovarian cancer also are attached to your dad’s side of the family. As indicated by the ACS, around 5 to 10 per cent of ovarian cancer growths result from acquired hereditary mutations.


Conclusion with key points

  • Ovarian cancer primarily affects postmenopausal or perimenopausal women; the risk increases with the inability to give birth, delayed childbirth, early onset of menstruation, delayed menopause and some genetic markers


  • Early symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia, bloating, feeling of full satiation, flatulence pain, back pain) are non-specific


  • If cancer is suspected, CT is performed, tumour markers are measured (e.g., CA 125), and the stage of the tumour is determined surgically


  • Screening for asymptomatic women using ultrasonography and / or CA 125 is not indicated if the BRCA mutation is not high


  • Diagnostic laparoscopy before laparotomy could save patients from unnecessary laparotomy, leading to suboptimal cytoreduction


  • Typically, treatment consists of hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-ovariectomy, and cytoreductive surgery, followed by chemotherapy (eg, carboplatin and paclitaxel)
You can also read – New targeted therapy for ovarian cancer

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